Our Equines After We’re Gone

Guards Apollo by Linda JacksonI heard on the radio that 40% of Americans don’t have a will or other end-of-life legal instrument.  As the reporter mentioned, it’s hardly surprising since it’s not easy to think about the end of our life.  Yet when we have equines, and especially from my perspective when we have Fell Ponies who are so aware of their human keepers, having an end-of-our-life plan for our equines seems important.  In the North American Fell Pony community, we don’t have to look very far to find owners who passed suddenly and unexpectedly and their herds had to be dispersed.

I heard recently of an equine owner who had the resources to set aside more than six figures for the care of their equines after the owner passed.  Of course most of us don’t have those sorts of resources, so an article on end-of-life planning for horse owners caught my eye. (1)  It pointed out things that certainly apply to me such as not having family members who are into equines so won’t have a clue about rehoming them in the event I pass if one of them is the executor of my estate.  The article also pointed out that the value of tack and equipment likewise could be misunderstood.  I immediately thought of my Norwegian harness that not even many equestrians would understand the value of.

I know some pony owners have thought about an end-of-their-life plan for their hooved friends because they’ve contacted me asking if they could put me in their wills.  I said yes, but I’m no spring chicken myself.  I can’t help but wonder if there’s a role here for rescues.  I’ve heard of two that want to focus on Fell Ponies.  Is it possible they could provide a re-homing service in exchange for a regular donation to fund their work?  The demographics of equine ownership – majority older – suggests there are lots of people who might be interested in a reasonably priced plan for some end-of-life peace of mind.

  1. Larson, Erica. “Estate Planning Tips for Horse Owners,” thehorse.com, article #37825 at http://www.thehorse.com/articles/37825/estate-planning-tips-for-horse-owners?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=welfare-industry&utm_campaign=07-14-2016

© Jenifer Morrissey, 2016

Book The Partnered PonyWhat an HonorFor more thoughtful articles about equine ownership, you’ll be interested in the books The Partnered Pony:  What’s Possible, Practical and Powerful with Small Equines and What an Honor:  A Dozen Years with Fell Ponies, both available internationally on amazon.com and by clicking on the titles.

Posted in Fell Ponies, Partnered Pony (TM), Sustainable Equestrianism

The Temptation of a Three-Year-Old

A three-year-old Fell Pony looking deceptively mature

A three-year-old Fell Pony looking deceptively mature

More than once I have seen three-year-old Fell Ponies for sale that have been ‘lightly started.’  Usually the advertisement includes a picture of the pony being ridden at a canter.  While I don’t think cantering a three year old under saddle is appropriate, I do now have a better appreciation for the human motivation.

I have three three-year-olds here.  One was born here and one has been here since before its first birthday.  The third was raised in a more temperate climate and arrived just six weeks ago.  The two that have been here the longest in no way look physically mature.  The newest arrival, on the other hand, is tall and well fleshed and looks, to my eye, older than she is.  My eye, of course, has been calibrated by the many three year olds that have been raised here (more than a dozen.)

Three year olds, in my experience, are mentally mature enough for more extensive training than they were the previous year.  The contrast between two and three year olds, for someone who’s been waiting for their pony to mature, is striking.  My three year olds, though, have never looked physically ready for mounting, so I’ve always engaged them in more stimulating groundwork instead.

I’m reminded of something the late Thomas Capstick of the Murthwaite stud once said: that he didn’t breed his fillies until they were four because winters on the fell were just too hard on them to both grow up and carry a foal.  Most breeders start a filly’s reproductive life at three, and some even breed two year olds.  While I have gotten away with breeding three-year-olds in my challenging climate, I also keep a close and watchful eye on them to make sure they have the support they need to continue to mature while also carrying a new life.  This year for the first time I’m not breeding a three year old that I normally would because she doesn’t seem physically mature enough.

The newly arrived three year old is an interesting contrast.  Her height and flesh make her look more mature than she is, and I suspect many Fell Pony three-year-olds raised away from the fells look similar.  With her size and her three-year-old’s increased interest in doing things with people, I can see the temptation to start her under saddle.  I know, though, that a three year old isn’t a mature-enough pony in any way that really matters for saddle work, so I won’t give into the temptation.

I personally believe that it’s best for the pony as well as all the pony’s subsequent owners for us humans to not be tempted by a three year old.  Waiting for more physical maturity before carrying weight ensures the pony a longer and healthier working life.  I understand the temptation to put a three year old under saddle, especially given the investment often required to purchase a Fell Pony.  I wholeheartedly, however, urge patience.

© Jenifer Morrissey, 2016

What an HonorBook The Partnered PonyYou’ll find more stories like this one in the books What an Honor:  A Dozen Years with Fell Ponies and The Partnered Pony:  What’s Possible, Practical, and Powerful with Small Equines.  Both are available internationally on Amazon.  You can also click on the pictures or titles to purchase them directly from the publisher.

Posted in Fell Ponies, Natural Horsemanship, Partnered Pony (TM)

The Compromise of Equine Transport Vehicles

Restar Mountain Shelley IIIIt was one of those slap-the-forehead moments.  Why hadn’t I thought of that before?!  An email crossed my desk suggesting that most equine transport vehicles are designed for the convenience of us humans rather than the comfort of the equines being transported. (1)  I immediately knew the truth in the statement.  After reading a little further, I laughed.  My late mare Sleddale Rose Beauty had taught me another lesson!

Two physiological characteristics of equines in motion are hindered by most equine transport vehicles.  We may not think of equines being in motion when they’re being transported, but they are, most especially during acceleration, deceleration, cornering and the change from stop to backing.  The first physiological trait that I realized was impaired by most vehicles is that equines use their heads and necks to balance out movement in the rest of their body.  When an equine’s head is tied up during transport, or if they are unable to raise or lower their head or move it side to side because of the design of the vehicle, then they are unable to compensate for movement in the rest of their body as they normally would, likely resulting in stress or tension somewhere in their bodies.

In addition to the physiological stress of having their heads tied or otherwise constrained by vehicle design, there is also the risk of contracting shipping fever.  Not being able to lower their heads to cough normally can cause dust and other airborne contagions to accumulate, facilitating potentially deadly respiratory illness.

The second physiological characteristic impaired by most transport vehicles and practices is that equines carry more than half their weight on their forequarters.  Yet when loaded in a vehicle facing the direction of travel, their weight is often thrown to the hindquarters, especially by deceleration.  My mare Beauty was very difficult to transport unless she was facing opposite the direction of travel.  In fact, all my ponies when given the choice will choose to stand facing the rear.  Having their weight thrown repeatedly onto a part of the body not functionally intended to carry it will also produce stress and tension.  I have a new appreciation for how willingly my ponies travel in my trailer despite the compromises to their physiology the travel imparts.

A related article had to do with transporting broodmares. I’ve always been concerned about the impact the stress of travel might have on a freshly settled mare.  A Colorado State University study found that while most mares do fine being transported during pregnancy, which has certainly been my experience, those with low progesterone levels have a greater chance of aborting.  The researchers also speculated that “vulnerability to stress may be greatest at about 25 to 45 days after conception, when the embryo is attaching itself to the placenta.” (2)

It was noted in one of the articles that youngstock have different biomechanics in motion than adult equines.  And obviously, foals during transport have the additional need of being able to nurse.  I have found, as was also described in the article, that foals have no problem nursing facing the direction of travel but then choose to ride facing rearward like their dams.

I try not to take trailering for granted and therefore endeavor to make trips as comfortable as possible.  In my three-horse slant load trailer, for instance, if I’m going more than a few miles, I remove the lead rope from the halter to enable up and down movement of the head and neck.  If I’m only transporting a single pony, I leave the stalls open and let them ride loose.  Always, I find them facing rearwards when I check on them.

After slapping my forehead at the obvious truth of the compromise of equine transport vehicles, I was even more grateful for how willingly my ponies travel.  And I was grateful once again for my late mare Beauty and yet another lesson she taught me.

  1. See for instance, Creiger, Sharon E. “Reducing Equine Hauling Stress:  A Review,” Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 2:8 N/D 1982.
  2. Thomas, Heather Smith. “Transporting Broodmares,” California Thoroughbred Breeders Association, February 2001, at http://archive.ctba.com/01magazine/feb01/news3.htm

© Jenifer Morrissey, 2016

Book The Partnered PonyOne section of the book The Partnered Pony is dedicated to practical aspects of partnering with ponies including trailering.  The Partnered Pony:  What’s Possible, Practical, and Powerful with Small Equines is available internationally on Amazon.com and by clicking here.

Posted in Fell Ponies, Natural Horsemanship, Partnered Pony (TM) | Tagged

South Pole Ponies

Crean & Bones Public Domain WikimediaWhen I first read that there had been ponies on the continent of Antarctica, I thought there must have been some editorial mistake.  Why would anyone want to take equines to a land of perpetual snow and ice?  I live in a place where snow and ice and cold are facts of life six months a year.  In addition, I’ve visited more extreme alpine environments where glaciers and crevasses dominate.  These firsthand experiences informed my incredulity when I heard about the South Pole Ponies.  Despite being a pony enthusiast, I still think there are limits to what ponies are capable of.

After that first introduction to the South Pole Ponies, I had to learn more. (1)  It turns out that not once but twice ponies were taken to Antarctica in the very early twentieth century as beasts of burden on expeditions towards the South Pole.  Of course, that ponies were chosen over other equines made perfect sense to me; the choice reflected an understanding of the versatile working heritage that most pony breeds have.  I was interested to learn that the South Pole Ponies were asked primarily to pull sledges rather than pack; the thinking may have been that they would be less likely to ‘posthole’ into the snow with the weight behind them rather than on their backs. I make similar accommodations here.

I was astonished to learn that untrained ponies were purchased, of Manchurian and similar origins, and that most of the explorers had little to no equine experience.  Perhaps that lack of equine savvy explains why some of the ponies that were purchased and transported south were unhealthy or aged and from the outset were unfit for the task ahead.  Given these issues, that the ponies were able to accomplish as much as they did seems even more remarkable.

One of the reasons equines were chosen was so they could eventually be slaughtered to provide meat for the humans and canines of the exploration parties.  The few ponies who made it far enough on the expeditions did indeed serve that purpose.  Others were lost from illness, exposure and accident.

I found it curious that grey ponies were chosen.  It was the belief of the first expedition organizer that that color was best suited to the extreme climate of Antarctica.  In my experience here, dark colored ponies always have the warmest coats to the touch because they soak up any available sunlight more readily.  Perhaps now that I have a gray pony here, I’ll better understand the expedition leader’s reasoning.  An interesting challenge also related to the ponies’ coats was that the ponies were taken from the northern to the southern hemisphere, and their shed cycle was timed for the opposite season.  Hindsight says they should have been taken south a year or more in advance.

The South Pole Ponies have been in the news recently thanks to one man’s tireless work to commemorate their contribution to the South Pole expeditions.  Navigational waypoints have been named for five of the ponies after a two year campaign by retired US Air Force colonel Ronald Smith.  Six sled dogs were also recognized.  (2)

Recent visitors to the Terra Nova hut of the second South Pole expedition that used ponies found the hut in nearly identical condition to one hundred years before, with bales of fodder stacked outside and pony hairs still caught on rough wood in the stables. (3)  Decay takes longer in cold environments, something else with which I’m familiar.  Composting manure, for instance, is a longer process here than other places I’ve lived.

It was well into my second decade as a pony enthusiast when I first heard about ponies being on the Antarctic continent.  I still think it’s remarkable that anyone would consider ponies to be an appropriate draft animal at the most southern reaches of our planet.   Perhaps it’s because the expeditions were ill-fated and that the ponies didn’t survive that their story is less appealing so took longer to come to my attention.  Still, the ponies obviously revealed their unique strength of heart to their human companions.   It’s undoubtedly this that kept them from being forgotten and ultimately led to them being perpetually honored and remembered through the newly named navigational waypoints.

  1. I highly recommend Theodore K. Mason’s book The South Pole Ponies:  The Forgotten Heroes of Antarctic Exploration.
  2. Archer, Colleen Rutherford with Laurie Bonner. “Ponies of the Southern Sky,” Equus #460, January 2016, p. 54
  3. Furse, Cynthia, PhD. Letter to the Editor, Equus #462, March 2016, p. 11.

© Jenifer Morrissey , 2016

Book The Partnered PonyWhat ponies are capable of is celebrated in the book The Partnered Pony:  What’s Possible, Practical and Powerful with Small Equines, available internationally on Amazon and by clicking here.

Posted in Partnered Pony (TM), Work Ponies

Color Questions

Moonlit Stargazer LilyThe first Fell Pony herd I ever saw was unusual from a color standpoint.  There were six black ponies and two grays.  What made it unusual was not the dominance of black ponies, which is typical of the breed, but that grays made up 25% of the herd.  Typically grays are much more rare, though they’ve been more numerous in recent years.

When I began with Fell Ponies, my herd was all black and then I added a brown with black points.  When her brown-with-black-points daughter was born, my herd became unusual just like that first herd I saw because I then had more (non-black) color than the breed-wide norm.  My herd has now become even more colorful, with the arrival of Moonlit Stargazer Lily, a three-year-old gray filly.  I’m very excited by all the color questions I now get to ask and, with Lily’s help, hopefully answer.

This morning my husband suggested, rightly, that I need to take pictures of Lily regularly.  The first color question is how fast she will lighten to the color of her dam who is white.  And how will the white emerge?  Right now Lily has white patches on her face that are much lighter than the rest of her body.  It’s already hard to distinguish her star that contributed to her name!

A second color related question was asked by an acquaintance when they first saw a picture of Lily.  Do all gray Fell Ponies eventually turn white?  All the ones I know have lightened with age, but I’ve never researched in the broader Fell Pony population whether this is universally true.  I also don’t know whether there is an equine gray color, genetically, that stays gray – another question to answer!

Another color question was inspired by pictures I saw of Lily several months ago when I was first given the opportunity to bring her here.  She appeared almost lavender in color, especially in her mane and tail.  I think this coloring was because her black hairs were faded.  I have seen other gray Fells her age with a similar lavender appearance.  Now only Lily’s tail shows that coloring, and at her tail’s root it’s looking gray rather than lavender, as you can see in the picture here.  My color question here is whether the lavender color does indeed manifest because of a faded  black background color and if so whether copper supplementation returns the pony to a gray color from lavender just as it makes faded black ponies become blacker.

Another color question is related to our climate here.  I’ve always been biased against gray ponies because I’ve believed that they will be hard to keep clean during our spring mud season, afternoon summer thunder showers, and dusty dry lots in summer.  My black ponies also get muddy and dusty but it doesn’t seem noticeable.  Will a gray pony (especially in the white phase) be any more noticeably muddy and dusty than the blacks?  Another climate question is whether Lily will be able to stay as warm in the winter as the dark-colored ponies whose coats absorb warmth readily from the weak winter sun.

I brought Lily here to breed to my stallion Guards Apollo.  The last color question currently on my mind is related to future foals.  I’ve already made one mistake with foal color when my brown-with-black-points mare had her first.  I thought the foal was brown when it was actually faded black.  Grays may be more tricky since they’re born black and then turn.  The mare Lunesdale Silver Belle whom I owned for a few years fooled her breeder, despite her breeder having decades of experience.  Ellie was named assuming she was a gray, hence the silver in her name, but she never turned and stayed black.  So the color question here is whether I’ll be able to accurately tell Lily’s foal colors. I’m not optimistic!

I love questions that I can learn answers to (the unanswerable ones I find more frustrating.)   I’m looking forward to learning the answers to the color questions I already have and I look forward to any others that may present themselves!

© Jenifer Morrissey, 2016

Book Fell Pony ObservationsThere are more stories about the colors of the Fell Pony in the book Fell Ponies:  Observations on the Breed, the Breed Standard and Breeding, available on Amazon and by clicking here.

Posted in Fell Ponies

Foal (and Older) Foot Handling

Willowtrail Mountain EmmaA session with my foal Willowtrail Mountain Emma left me pondering the vastly different perspectives people and ponies have about foot handling.  For us humans, the goal is clear: the pony should pick its foot up when asked, hold it in the air as long as we want, let us manipulate their leg and hoof with our hands and tools, and politely put it down when we’ve finished our task.  For a pony, though, having its foot under another’s control represents losing a key defense mechanism – flight – which their instincts tell them must be preserved at all costs.

When we work with foals of course, it’s our job to change their innate perception of foot handling from fear to an opportunity to cooperate.   Because I do my own hoof trimming right now, I’m especially attuned to my responsibility for creating this cooperative spirit since it makes my job as trimmer so much more enjoyable.  A conversation with a client, though, reminded me that foot handling isn’t something to be taken for granted, as sometimes even older equines lack an interest in cooperating in this most basic of equine stewardship responsibilities.

Foot handling of course is not just about lack of fear.  It’s about creating new associations and teaching new skills and introducing the idea of a relationship with a non-pony being.  Nonetheless, I’ve found it does progress in a fairly step-wise fashion.  And I’ve found that with older ponies, sometimes I have to go back a few steps from the ultimate destination to remind them of their part in the dance of foot handling that we’re undertaking together.

The first step in my approach to foal foot handling is to discover where the foal most likes to be scratched.  I then use scratches in their favorite places to communicate appreciation for subsequent cooperative behavior.   With foals I’ve found the first place they usually like to be scratched is the point of the shoulders, then the withers and eventually the ventral line and point of buttocks, a location helpful when working with the hind feet.

I then make sure I can stroke the foal’s body with them remaining calm and accepting, working as necessary from scratches in favorite places to broader strokes across the shoulders, neck, back, flanks, and hindquarters.  If they tense or begin to move off, I return to what they accept calmly while remaining stationary.

Then it’s time to stroke down the legs, part way at first and eventually all the way down to the coronet band.  One clinician has suggested that for older equines, we’re creating an association of a massage with foot handling.  We don’t just walk up to a horse, bend over, and lift the foot off the ground.  Instead we express our appreciation for our equine friend by calmly stroking them before getting to work.  Again, the goal is not to be able to touch the leg all the way down but to have the foal accept the stroking calmly and without tensing and moving off.  I often return to stroking the leg when I’ve gone too far too fast, which the foal has communicated to me by tensing or starting to move off.

Once the foal readily accepts stroking to the coronet band, I tap the coronet band lightly with my fingers.  Eventually this will serve as an initial communication that foot handling is in the offing.  Now though it is about testing the foal’s acceptance of all we’ve done before this point.  I have found for many foals that it takes a few repetitions for the foal to remain calm and quiet about this step.

One might assume that the next step is to pick the foot up.  I have found however that the smaller the increments between steps the better.  So for me, the next step is to ever so slightly tip the foot forward on the toe.  The second photo in the sequence shows how slight this step is.  Of course this step is immediately preceded by stroking the leg and tapping the coronet band.  I only proceed if the stroking and tapping were accepted calmly and quietly.  Tipping the foot forward onto the toe is the first time where I’m taking control of the foot, and I want to make sure that all goes well.  I’ve found that progressing from tapping the coronet band all the way to picking the foot up is too big a step, and most foals express discomfort with the idea by either tensing or moving off.  Instead, I want to give them an opportunity to experience the next step with only the slightest concern.  So I tip the hoof forward and put it back immediately.

Typically foals will accept this small increment with some tenseness but without moving off, as shown in the last photo of the sequence.  We’ve likely all had equines who will lift their feet fine but then try to kick their foot free from our hands and put it back down themselves.  This step of tipping the foot forward and replacing it immediately is intended to be the first subtle introduction to the idea that proper foot handling is not just about picking the foot up when asked but about putting it down when asked and not before, and on the human’s terms, politely, not theirs.  It is of course possible for the human to be injured if a horse kicks their foot out of their human’s hands, so this step and the next couple are very important to the quality of the end result of foot handling training.

After the foal accepts their foot being tipped ever so slightly forward then returned to the ground, the next step is to tip the foot farther forward onto the toe so that the soul of the hoof is definitely off the ground but not necessarily the toe.  The foot is again then returned immediately to the ground and released.   Scratches in favorite places should of course be utilized to communicate that the desired behavior is recognized and appreciated.  It may seem like all of these small incremental steps make teaching foot handling manners take a lot of time, but in practice they go pretty quickly.  The benefit comes down the road.  I’ve had two year olds in their troublesome phase suggest they’ve forgotten everything they were ever taught about foot handling, but then when I take them back though this sequence, complete with strokes and scratches in their favorite places, they quickly settle into the routine.

I make sure to progress all four feet each session.  We all know that horses learn separately for each side of their body, so we can’t assume that just because things went well on one side, they’ll go well on the other.  I’ve also found that there is always one foot that is more problematic than the rest and takes longer to make progress on.  This was true even on my second ever pony, a Norwegian Fjord Horse whom I acquired as a two-year-old, so the one-problematic-foot issue seems to not to be limited to foals.

After I’m able to tip the foot onto the toe, I take the next step of lifting the foot ever so slightly off the ground.  I immediately put it back down.  Sometimes the foal wants to kick it out of my hand even after all these preparatory steps, so I try to have my other hand ready at the top of the hock to force the lower leg to the ground.  I don’t try to keep the foot in the air very long or manipulate it.  Those steps come later.  I have found that this quick pick up and put down is a crucial step to developing trust in the foal about the foot handling process.

From here the foot handling process begins to look more like the end goal to us humans.  From lifting slightly and putting back down, I progress to lifting the foot higher each time and to patting it on the bottom before putting it back down.  I’m still stroking and scratching in favorite places as prep and thank you, and I’m still emphasizing that the foot is put down on my terms and my timing, politely.  When they have been taught that picking the foot up is automatically followed at some point by putting it back down, with the activities in between taught in increasing increments of time and complexity, the end result is at least more understandable to the foal, as well as being one that I can reinforce every time I handle their feet.

As foals age, I have found they progress from being afraid of having their feet handled to being annoyed about the activity.  The step-wise approach I use works equally well in the face of annoyance, reminding them that their foot will be returned to them politely, with several scratches in favorite places in the mean time.

Shortly after my first pony entered my life, I learned about the natural horsemanship approach to being with equines.  My early attempts to use natural horsemanship techniques with my first pony, however, were dismal failures.  I reached out to a nearby pony breeder asking if they felt the techniques could be used with ponies.  The answer has been one I come back to over and over again.  “It’s important to break things down into the smallest possible steps to help them understand.”  While my experience has been entirely with ponies, I suspect the step-wise approach might be helpful with other equines, too.  It certainly has made a difference for me in foal (and older) foot handling.

© Jenifer Morrissey, 2016

Book The Partnered PonyThere are more stories like this one in The Partnered Pony:  What’s Possible, Practical, and Possible with Small Equines, available internationally on Amazon and by clicking here.

Posted in Fell Ponies, Natural Horsemanship, Partnered Pony (TM)

My Dad and a Pony

dad on a ponyPonies have been my focus and my passion for nearly two decades.  Every once in awhile, though, I get surprised when they appear in a part of my life where I don’t expect them.

The last time I saw my father, he didn’t know who I was, thanks to the curse of dementia.  He did, though, have quite a collection of postcards that he treasured from the Pony Lady.  I succeeded in connecting with him from a distance by sending pictures of my ponies in a format that encouraged conversation with his caregivers.  I often received feedback from Dad’s visitors indicating how much Dad appreciated my efforts.  Dad never seemed very interested in animals when he was younger, but photographs were a big part of my growing up with him.

Dad has finally been freed from the curse of dementia.  The planning of his Celebration of Life had the unexpected benefit of reconnecting with my aunt, his older sister.  Part of the Celebration was a slide show, and my aunt dove into boxes long stored in her garage and found photographs my siblings and I had never seen before.  As you’ll have guessed, one of those photographs shows my aunt and my father aboard a pony.

Two things struck me about this photograph.  First of course was that Dad was actually in physical contact with an equine, though he doesn’t necessarily look happy about it.  My brother found home movie footage from fifty years ago showing my dad actually riding a horse, with me in the saddle in front of him.  In that case he actually had a smile on his face!  The second thing that struck me about the photo from Dad’s childhood was the size and apparent color of the pony underneath him.  It’s not as obvious in this photo as it is in another one that my aunt shared that also included their cousins.  This pony is about the size and color of my first pony Mya, an 11.2hh silver dapple.  Of all the possible sizes and colors that ponies can be, that my father would be astride a pony so similar to my first one I find truly remarkable.

A day rarely goes by when ponies aren’t somehow part of what I do.  Even when we make one of our twice monthly trips to the ‘big city’ for supplies, we frequently make time for a meal with a pony friend.  I even figured out how to see ponies when I traveled for my father’s Celebration of Life!  These are all things I plan so that ponies can be even more present in my life.  Nonetheless there are parts of my life that are still pony-free.  So when a pony appears in one of those normally pony-free areas, the surprise is a delightful one indeed.

© Jenifer Morrissey, 2016

Book Fell Pony ObservationsA story about my familial connection to Fell Ponies can be found in Fell Ponies:  Observations on the Breed, the Breed Standard, and Breeding, available on Amazon and by clicking here.

Posted in Partnered Pony (TM)